Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil cover

Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

1. 00 – Introduction
2. 01 – Of Sense
3. 02 – Of Imagination
4. 03 – Of the Consequence or Train of Imaginations
5. 04 – Of Speech
6. 05 – Of Reason and Science
7. 06 – Of the Interior Beginnings of Voluntary Motions, Commonly Called the Passions; and the Speeches by Which They are Expressed
8. 07 – Of the Ends or Resolutions of Discourse
9. 08 – Of the Virtues Commonly Called Intellectual; and their Contrary Defects
10. 09 – Of the Several Subjects of Knowledge
11. 10 – Of Power,Worth,Dignity, Honour and Worthiness
12. 11 – Of the Difference of Manners
13. 12 – Of Religion
14. 13 – Of the Natural Condition of Mankind as Concerning Their Felicity and Misery
15. 14 – Of the First and Second Natural Laws, and of Contracts
16. 15 – Of Other Laws of Nature
17. 16 – Of Persons, Authors, and Things Personated
18. 17 – Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth
19. 18 – Of the Rights of Sovereigns by Institution
20. 19 – Of the Several Kinds of Commonwealth by Institution, and of Succession to the Sovereign Power
21. 20 – Of Dominion Paternal and Despotical
22. 21 – Of the Liberty of Subjects
23. 22 – Of Systems Subject, Political and Private
24. 23 – Of the Public Ministers of Sovereign Power
25. 24 – Of the Nutrition and Procreation of a Commonwealth
26. 25 – Of Counsel
27. 26 – Of Civil Laws
28. 27 – Of Crimes, Excuses, and Extenuations
29. 28 – Of Punishments and Rewards
30. 29 – Of Those Things that Weaken or Tend to the Dissolution of a Commonwealth
31. 30 – Of the Office of the Sovereign Representative
32. 31 – Of the Kingdom of God by Nature

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Books 1 and 2. Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil is a book written in 1651 by Thomas Hobbes. The book concerns the structure of society (as represented figuratively by the frontispiece, showing the state giant made up of individuals). In the book, Hobbes argues for a social contract and rule by a sovereign. Influenced by the English Civil War, Hobbes wrote that chaos or civil war – situations identified with a state of nature and the famous motto bellum omnium contra omnes (”the war of all against all”) – could only be averted by strong central government. He thus denied any right of rebellion toward the social contract. However, Hobbes did discuss the possible dissolution of the State. Since the social contract was made to institute a state that would provide for the “peace and defense” of the people, the contract would become void as soon as the government no longer protected its citizens. By virtue of this fact, man would automatically return to the state of nature until a new contract is made.