Symbolism cover


Johann Adam Möhler (1796-1838)

1. Introductory Note by the Translator
2. Author's Prefaces to the First through Fourth Editions, Editor's Preface to the Fifth Edition
3. Memoir of Dr. Moehler, Part 1
4. Memoir of Dr. Moehler, Part 2
5. Memoir of Dr. Moehler, Part 3
6. Memoir of Dr. Moehler, Part 4
7. Memoir of Dr. Moehler, Part 5
8. Memoir of Dr. Moehler, Part 6
9. Introduction, Part I- Nature, Extent and Sources of Symbolism.
10. Introduction, Part II - Symbolical Writings of Catholics and Protestants.
11. Book I, Part I, § I - Primitive State of Man According to the Catholic Doctrine.
12. § II Lutheran doctrine on man's original state. § III The Calvinistic doctrine on the primitive state of man.
13. § IV On the causes of moral evil.
14. Chapter II § V The Catholic doctrine on original sin.
15. § VI Doctrine of the Lutherans respecting original sin.
16. § VII Considerations on Heathenism...
17. § VIII Doctrine of the Calvinists on original sin. § IX Zwingli's view of original sin.
18. Chapter III § X General statement of the mode in which... man becomes justified.
19. § XI Of the relation of the operation of God to that of man, in the work of regeneration...
20. § XII Doctrine of the Calvinists on the relation of grace to freedom, and human cooperation.-Predestination
21. § XIII Of The Catholic notion of predestination.
22. § XIV Doctrine of the Protestants on justification and sanctification.
23. § XV Catholic View of this subject.
24. § XVI Lutheran And Calvinistic view of faith.
25. § XVII Appreciation of the theoretic grounds.
26. § XVIII Appreciation of the practical grounds.
27. § XIX Survey of the differences & § XX Of the assurance of justification.
28. § XXI Doctrine of the Catholics respecting good works.& § XXII Doctrine of the Protestants respecting good works.
29. § XXIII Purgatory in connection with Catholic justification.
30. § XXIV Opposition between the communions.
31. § XXV The culminating point of inquiry. & § XXVI Analysis of truth and error in the Protestant doctrine of faith.
32. § XXVII Affinity of Protestantism with Gnosticism and Pantheism.
33. § XXVIII Catholics on the Sacraments. & § XXiX Lutherans on the Sacraments.
34. § XXX Further consequences of the Lutheran view, XXXI Zwingli & Calvin on the Sacraments & XXXII Baptism and Penance
35. § XXXIII Continuation of the doctrine of Penance.
36. § XXXIV Catholics on the Sacrament of the Altar, and on the Mass.
37. § XXXV Doctrine of the Lutherans, Zwinglians, and Calvinists, on the Eucharist.

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Johann Adam Möhler was professor theology at the Tübingen University where both Catholics and Protestants taught and studied. In 1832 he published Symbolism; a work that examined the doctrines of original sin, grace and free will as held by the different Christian confessions. It caused a storm of controversy in the Protestant nations of Europe. In it he turned the weapons furnished by Hegel, the “Protestant Aquinas”, against Protestantism. His method and style were supported by the use of facts, texts, and documents. By 1838 Symbolism had been translated to 8 languages and its author had died before he completed its 5th edition. In an age when the Catholic Church found itself divided into two camps, the “German” and the “Roman”, Döllinger, a former pupil of Möhler’s, when addressing a group of scholars at Munich in 1863 once famously quipped that the former were defending Catholicism with rifles while the latter were still using bows and arrows. The “Romans”, however, would succeed in silencing thier “German” brethren at the First Vatican Council and cut off a branch bearing good fruit. A rediscovery of the “German” school is long overdue and there is no better place to start than Möhler’s Symbolism.