Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, Books III and IV cover

Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, Books III and IV

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

1. 01 – Of the Principles of Christian Politics
2. 02 – Chapter XXXIII – Of the Number, Antiquity, Scope, Authority, and Interpreters of the Books of Holy Scripture
3. 03 – Chapter XXXIV – Of the Signification of Spirit, Angel, and Inspiration in the Books of Holy Scripture
4. 04 – Chapter XXXV – Of the Signification in Scripture of Kingdom of God, of Holy, Sacred, and Sacrament
5. 05 – Chapter XXXVI – Of the Word of God, and of Prophets
6. 06 – Chapter XXXVII – Of Miracles and Their Use
7. 07 – Chapter XXXVIII – Of the Signification in Scripture of Eternal Life, Hell, Salvation, the World to Come, and Redemption
8. 08 – Chapter XXXIX – Of the Signification in Scripture of the Word Church
9. 09 – Chapter XL – Of the Rights of the Kingdom of God, in Abraham, Moses, the High Priests, and the Kings of Judah
10. 10 – Chapter XLI – Of the office of our blessed saviour
11. 11 – Chapter XLII – Of Power Ecclesiastical, Part 1
12. 12 – Chapter XLII – Of Power Ecclesiastical, Part 2
13. 13 – Chapter XLII – Of Power Ecclesiastical, Part 3
14. 14 – Chapter XLII – Of Power Ecclesiastical, Part 4
15. 15 – Chapter XLII – Of Power Ecclesiastical, Part 5
16. 16 – Chapter XLII – Of Power Ecclesiastical, Part 6
17. 17 – Chapter XLIII – Of What is Necessary for a Man’s Redemption into the Kingdom of Heaven
18. 18 – Chapter XLIV – Of Spiritual Darkness from the Misinterpretation of Scripture, Part 1
19. 19 – Chapter XLIV – Of Spiritual Darkness from Misinterpretation of Scripture, Part 2
20. 20 – Chapter XLV – Of Demonology and Other Relics of the Religion of the Gentiles, Part 1
21. 21 – Chapter XLV – Of Demonology and Other Relics of the Religion of the Gentiles, Part 2
22. 22 – Chapter XLVI – Of Darkness from Vain Philosophy and Fabulous Traditions
23. 23 – Chapter XLVII – Of the Benefit that Proceedeth from Such Darkness, and to Whom it Accrueth
24. 24 – Chapter XLVIII – A Review and Conclusion

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Summary

In Books 3 and 4 of Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes elaborates on the political philosophy set forth in the first two books, by considering the nature of a Christian commonwealth. Book 3 begins with a wealth of biblical scholarship, directed at establishing the authority of Scripture while at the same time undermining modern claims to supernatural revelation that would subvert civil law. Hobbes concludes that we cannot be sure of anyone else’s divine revelation, and that religious authority is therefore subordinate to civil power. Book 4, titled “Of the Kingdom of Darkness,” sets forth the various ways in which Scripture has been misinterpreted by the church, according to Hobbes, in mixing pagan elements with Christianity.